California  Civil War Rosters


From the book “Records of California Men in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 to 1867

by Brig.-Gen. Richard H. Orton, pub. 1890

Transcribed by © Kathy Sedler, June 2004  pp 50-67.



Part Two of Two. 



PIMOS VILLAGES, May 5, 1862.

                LIEUTENANT:  The following scale of prices has been agreed upon with the Indians:

                Four quarts flour, weighing four and one quarter pounds, for one yard manta.

                Seven quarts wheat, weighing thirteen pounds, for one yard manta.

                Four quarts pinole, weighing five and one half pounds, for one yard manta.

                Fifty pounds hay or one hundred and fifty pounds of green fodder, for one yard manta.

                These prices are much for the interest of the Government, and it is to be hoped that the facilities for purchasing of the Indians will enlarge.  Manta may be called the staple of article for them, but such goods as were asked for by the Colonel commanding, in his letters of December, 1861, on the Mojave expedition, are indispensably necessary for the practice of an economy of great advantage.  The daily consumption of the present command for forage is as follows:


                                                                                                                                                                Yards manta.

280 horses, wheat 12 pounds, 3,360                                                                                                  303 ½

 65 mules, wheat 9 pounds, 585 } 3,945 pounds, equals                                                               


345 animals, hay 14 pounds, 4,830 pounds, equals                                                                        96 ½


                Daily consumption of manta                                                                                              400


                Not enough flour to make mention of has been brought in, and pinole is an article of small consumption, unless of necessity.  A brief observation of these people and their habits shows me that they are disinclined to sell their produce or any other property unless the article offered in exchange is such as they habitually and at the moment need.  I do not believe that they would trade wheat for more manta than what they wanted for the moment, and further, that after twenty thousand yards of that goods have been distributed among them it would cease to be a ready currency.  These opinions may be erroneous; my experience with the people has been of less than a week’s duration, and that with only promises to offer in payment.  Obligations for near three thousand yards manta are already outstanding from the Quartermaster and Commissary Departments.  Even without any increase of the command, the ten thousand yards daily expected at the post will be exhausted by the twentieth instant.  If, when the manta arrives, the Indians do not bring in their wheat more freely (the animals only get half rations to-day) I see no recourse but to enter their wheat fields and cut the grain for forage.  As yet negotiations for purchasing their standing grain have not been consummated.  I enlarge more upon the difficulties of getting supplies here with reference to the part of the expedition that is in my rear than to the command now here.  I am anxious to see a supply on hand for an advance, and shall endeavor to accomplish it.

                                Respectfully, your obedient servant,


Lieutenant-Colonel, First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

                To BENJ. C. CUTLER, First Lieutenant and Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of Southern California.





PIMOS VILLAGES, May 6, 1862.

                LIEUTENANT:  I have the honor to report fair progress in obtaining forage for the animals now here, but as yet no prospect presents itself of my being able to accumulate a surplus for any onward movement, or to meet the wants of any additional number of animals suddenly placed here.  Immediate payment in manta may work a change, but until that fact is proved I must continue doubtful about daily supplies even.  The crop of mesquite beans will mature in all this month, and some of the wheat; then the problem will be solved of the dependence that can be placed upon supplies here.  I state these facts for the information of the Colonel commanding, whose plans may hinge upon them somewhat.  No flour comes in, and I fear will not as long as we call for their wheat so freely.  If, however, we can get enough wheat for forage, the flour can be brought up from Fort Yuma in lieu of it.

                                Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Lieutenant-Colonel, First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding.

                To BENJ. C. CUTLER, First Lieutenant and Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of Southern California.






                MAJOR:  I have the honor to inform you that I arrived here yesterday evening.     The weather had been intolerably hot during the last few days, but the troops have marched admirably notwithstanding.  Colonel West, with five companies of infantry and one of cavalry and two howitzers, you may remember, was ordered to occupy Tucson.  He doubtless arrived there last Tuesday, the twentieth instant.  I am in hourly expectation of hearing from him.

                The Rebels, from the best information I can get, have retired from Arizona towards the Rio Grande.  The Apaches attacked Captain Hunter’s company of Confederate troops near Dragoon Spring, and killed four men and ran off with thirty mules and twenty-five horses.

                The Pimos and Maricopa Indians have already sold to us for manta and on credit, one hundred and forty-three thousand pounds of wheat.  Of the new crop, it is estimated that they will have for sale, say two hundred tons of wheat.  I held a council with them to-day, and promised to have sent down from San Francisco the additional supply of manta and the Indian goods asked for in my letter of the tenth instant.

                I have directed a train of fifteen wagons to proceed to San Pedro, Cal., for these goods and for clothing for the troops.  The depot Quartermaster at that point should be instructed to forward these articles, and particularly the clothing, the moment it comes down from above.  The troops must have the clothing at once.  Once their feet come to the hot ground and their clothing comes to be greatly worn, they will suffer immeasurably.

                The Pimos and Maricopas are the finest Indians I have ever seen, and will be of great service to us and to the Overland Mail Company, which eventually is certain to run over this route.  The Apaches are their hereditary enemies.  The Apaches have murdered people on the route and possessed themselves of arms, with which they now, for the first time, successfully assail the Pimos.  The latter pray to be furnished with arms, not only to defend themselves, but to punish the Apaches.  I beg respectfully to request that the General will cause to be sent to my address, at Fort Barrett, one hundred stand of the old muskets (percussion) with ten thousand rounds of buck and ball cartridges, and with a supply of bullet-molds for the muskets.  These can be issued direct to the chiefs, who will be responsible for them, or, which would not be as well, to the commanding officer at Fort Barrett, for the use of the Indians when necessary.

                The General may rely upon it, this would be a great favor to this worthy people, who have always been our fast friends.  I shall proceed to Tucson in four or five days.  I am now having all the wells repaired and made deeper which lie between the Gila and that place on the old stage road.

                As soon as the Rebels are brushed away from Mesilla, the overland stage from Independence, Mo., via Santa Fe, Fort Thorn, Tucson, Los Angeles, to San Francisco, can commence its trips before the snows of winter again set in.  I suggest that attention be drawn to this subject even now.

                                I am, Major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Colonel, First California Volunteers, Commanding.

Maj. RICHARD C. DRUM, Acting Adjutant-General U.S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.







No. 2

1.  The post on the San Pedro River in this Territory hitherto known as Fort Breckenridge will hereafter be known as Fort Stanford, in honor of the Governor of the State of California.

2.  Lieut.-Col. Edward E. Eyre, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, with all the troops of his regiment now at Fort Barrett, will proceed without delay to Fort Stanford and reoccupy it.  Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre will take one hundred rounds of ammunition per man, and subsistence for his command to include the thirtieth proximo.

3.  Lieut.-Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry, California Volunteers, in command of the advance guard of this column, having taken possession of Tucson, in this Territory, will leave that town under the command of Capt. William McMullen, First Infantry, California Volunteers, and proceed with Fritz’s company of cavalry, and such other troops from the advance guard as he may deem necessary, and reoccupy Fort Buchanan.

4.  The post returns of Fort Buchanan, Tucson, and Fort Stanford, Ariz., for the month of May, 1862, will be forwarded through these headquarters to their proper destination.

5.  The Chief Quartermaster, the Medical Director, and Chief Commissary will give such orders as may be necessary to aid in carrying the foregoing paragraphs into due effect.

By order of Colonel CARLETON.


First Lieutenant, First Infantry, California Volunteers, Acting Asst. Adjutant-General.






                MAJOR:  The advance guard of this column, under Lieut.-Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry, California Volunteers, took possession of Tucson, in this Territory, on the twentieth instant, without firing a shot.  All the Secession troops who were in the Territory and all of the Secessionists, so far as we can learn, have fled – the troops to the Rio Grande, the citizens to Sonora.  Our arrival is hailed with great joy by all the people who remain.  We shall doubtless be able to get some forage, flour, and beef, and perhaps sugar, from Sonora, but of this I will write you in detail from Tucson in a few days.

                A rumor comes from the Rio Grande that Sibley has met with a serious reverse.

                                I am, Major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Colonel, First California Volunteers, Commanding.

Maj. RICHARD C. DRUM, Acting Adjutant-General U.S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.





SAN FRANCISCO, June 21, 1862.

The ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Washington, D.C.

                GENERAL:  My latest dispatches from Brigadier-General Carleton were received this morning, dated June first.  The General was then at Fort Barrett, Pimos Villages, Ariz.  The General says that the crossing “the Gila Desert was terrible.”  Lieutenant Shinn, commanding the light artillery battery, reached Fort Barrett on the thirty-first of May, and was to march for Tucson on the first of June; his horses in good working order, but a little thin.  Thus far the expedition has been successfully prosecuted.  Arizona is securely occupied, notwithstanding the predictions of traitors that we should be compelled to abandon everything in the midst of the desert.

                General Carleton dispatched a messenger with a communication for General Canby, but he was unable to go up the Salinas on account of the high water in that river.  The General would again make an effort to communicate with Canby from Tucson.

         *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *

                                Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Brigadier-General, U.S. Army, Commanding.






TUCSON, ARIZONA, June 10, 1862.

                MAJOR:  I have the honor to report that, owing to the fact that all the buildings at Fort Buchanan have been destroyed, and to the fact that the site of that post being one of no military importance in the present condition of this Territory, I ordered its garrison to be withdrawn to this post.  The colors were put up there, thus consecrating the ground anew to the country, and the General Orders, so far as that post and Fort Breckenridge went, were literally fulfilled.  The troops at Fort Stanford (once Fort Breckenridge) will soon be withdrawn for similar reasons, with the additional one that its garrison, being cavalry, can find better grazing ground up the Santa Cruz River, nearer Sonora, where the horses will fare better and the troops be more cheaply and more readily supplied.

                I have here Shinn’s Light Battery, with the horses in good condition, two companies of cavalry, with the horses in good working order, and six companies of infantry.  The remainder of the Column is at present at Fort Stanford and Fort Barrett.

                It would surprise you to see how the great heat and the dry air of the desert have affected our wagons.  The tires have to be cut and reset, and a large amount of other repairs have to be made to keep them from going to pieces.  This, with our limited means for such work, is a great task, but every preparation is making for an onward movement as soon as the rains fall to fill the natural tanks between here and the Rio Grande.  Now, not over one company at a time could pass a night at many of the wells, which are a march apart.  The twenty-fourth of June is the average time when the rains commence.

                I am making every endeavor to get supplies together against that time.  Meantime, I shall try to straighten up matters here, so that when a man does have his throat cut, his house robbed, or his fields ravaged, he may at least have the consolation of knowing there is some law that will reach him who does the injury.  I inclose herewith a paper which seems to touch this point.  I have not called it a proclamation, because, nowadays, every military commander makes one, and I had hoped to shun, in this respect, their example.  Whatever name the instrument may go by, I hope the General will see nothing in it that is not just and called for by the necessities of the case.  It already seems to have gratifying results.

                I shall send to Fort Yuma for confinement, starting them to-day, nine of the cutthroats, gamblers, and loafers who have infested this town to the great bodily fear of all good citizens.  Nearly every one, I believe, has either killed his man or been engaged in helping to kill him.  I shall send on a detailed account of the causes which justify their arrest and removal from the Territory.  They should be held prisoners at Alcatraz until the end of the war.  If discharged at Fort Yuma they will get back here again and give trouble.

                I have sent to arrest Mr. Sylvester Mowry and all the people at his mine.  It is possible I shall be obliged to hold Mr. Mowry a prisoner.  That he has been guilty of overt as well as covert acts of treason there is hardly a doubt.  I consider his presence in this Territory as dangerous to its peace and prosperity.  Inclosed are copies of certain charges against him, and of the instructions for his arrest.

                In a few days I will inform the General of my fortune and prospects in getting supplies from Sonora.

                Thus far I have been unable to get any reliable news from the Rio Grande.

                                I am, Major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Colonel, First California Volunteers, Commanding.

Maj. R.C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General U.S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.




MOWRY SILVER MINE, May 11, 1862.


                DEAR SIR:  Seeing that you and your army have advanced to Arizona Territory and have gloriously taken possession of that Territory from those impudent Rebels, I take pains to post you and your army up so you may know what is going about and around you.

                Mr. Sylvester Mowry is one of the officers of the Southern Rebellion, and has all the time furnished ammunition to the rebellion party and keep a good many in his place (at the mine) for to attack your troops.  Nothing but a few weeks ago he has sent by Sergeant Ford three thousand caps, powder, etc.  His blacksmith and carpenter are raising a six-pounder brass piece for to receive Northerners, as he says himself, and has offered to bet $100 that he would be Governor of the Territory in less than six months.  That was last March when he offered that bet, and that he, with his twenty Americans (all Southerners) could whip a hundred of your troops, etc.; and he has made port holes all through his corral for that purpose.

                If you are going up there I advise you not to go during the daytime, as he has two men constantly on the hill looking out for any of your men a coming.

                It has to be during the night, after sundown or early in the morning, and corral him in his house, and a guide to enter the corral through the big gateway, as he leaves inside the corral plenty of Mexicans there to be had, to show you where he lives, and tell you all about him, and there is less than half a mile another town where there is a lot of Southerners also, but you can easily cut them off if you choose, unless they don’t take the trail to Santa Cruz, Mexico, as they very probably will, as good many have already left.

                Any other news that you may wish, I shall be very happy to serve you and your people.

                                I remain respectfully yours,


Metallurgist, M.S.M.





TUCSON, June 8, 1862.

                COLONEL:  The Colonel commanding confides to your charge the duty of arresting and conveying to this post, as a prisoner, one Sylvester Mowry, now at the Patagonia Mines, some ninety miles distant from here near the Sonora line.

                Charges of a treasonable complicity with Rebels have been preferred against Mowry, and there is little doubt but that he has rendered assistance and furnished supplies to their forces.  From the moment that he falls into your hands you will interdict all communications by word or sign between him and his people, except such as you shall personally supervise.

                You will seize all his personal papers and any documents of a political character that you may find on the premises and bring them to these headquarters.

                You will also take into custody and bring as prisoners to this post all persons whom you find at the Patagonia Mines, using such discretion in your control of them as will prevent their doing anything to the prejudice of your movements or to the United States Government.

                You will see that your prisoners have supplies for the road; and you may, if necessary, use any subsistence that falls into your hands at the mines.

                You must bring every man that you arrest to this post without fail.  It is reported that a respectable German was murdered quite recently at the Patagonia Mines.  You will make careful inquiry into this matter and report the facts.

                In order to protect the interests of the owners of the Patagonia Mines, on taking possession of the same, you will make a minute inventory of all the movable property comprising mining implements and machinery, cattle, horses, arms, provisions, and any other articles appertaining to the mine.  This inventory must be verified and signed in duplicate by yourself and by the two officers next in rank of your command.  One copy of this inventory you will leave with the commanding officer of the guard that you place in charge of the mine, who will be held responsible for the safe keeping and preservation of the property named upon it.  You will bring all supplies, arms, and ammunition found at the mine, to this post, using of either such as you may need for your command.

                As soon as you have complied with the foregoing instructions, you will leave such guard in charge of the mine and property as you may deem adequate for security.  Captain Willis and his twenty-five infantrymen will perhaps be sufficient, but of this you must be the judge.  Then return with the remainder of your command to this post.  Should an opportunity offer in the meantime, you will report progress to these headquarters.  A the Patagonia Mine, and in the vicinity and en route thereto, you will ascertain and report upon the facilities available for subsisting troops and foraging animals.

                The force intrusted to your command for the execution of the foregoing duties comprises sixty of the First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Captain Fritz commanding, and twenty-five of the First Infantry, California Volunteers, Captain Willis; the latter officer with twelve men you will find in advance at Brevort’s Ranch.

                The cavalry have rations to the twentieth, the infantry to the thirtieth instant.

                The whole command is supplied with fifty rounds of ammunition per man.

                Inclosed herewith is an extract from a letter which should claim your careful consideration.

                                I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


First Lieutenant, First Infantry, California Volunteers, Acting Assist. Adjutant-General.

Lieut.-Col. EDWARD E. EYRE, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Tucson.





TUCSON, ARIZONA, June 16, 1862.


No. 17

1.  A Board of officers, to consist of Lieut.-Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry, California Volunteers, and Captain Nicholas S. Davis, First Infantry, California Volunteers, will assemble at this post at 4 P.M. to-day, or as soon thereafter as practicable, to investigate certain charges and facts tending to show that Mr. Sylvester Mowry of the Patagonia Mines, in this Territory, is an enemy to the Government of the United States, and that he has been in treasonable correspondence and collusion with well known Secessionists, and has offered them aid and comfort when they were known publicly to be enemies to the legally constituted authority and Government of the United States.

The Board will be duly sworn to the faithful performance of its duty, and will examine witnesses on oath, and will examine and make certified extracts from such documents as may be laid before them, which may have immediate or important bearing on these points, and the Board will report, in writing and in full, the evidence it received on all these matters, and its opinions whether or not there are sufficient grounds to restrain of his liberty and bring to trial before a Military Commission the said Mr. Sylvester Mowry.

2.  The Board will also inquire into the truth of a report that a respectable German citizen was recently murdered at or near Patagonia Mines, in this Territory, and report in writing the evidence in the case and their opinion, in the event they find the report to be true, as to who are probably the guilty parties.

The record of this investigation will be made up separately from that ordered in the first paragraph hereof.

3.  Second Lieutenant Erastus W. Wood, First Infantry, California Volunteers, is appointed Secretary of the Board, and will be duly sworn by the President thereof to a faithful discharge of his duties as such.

By order of Colonel CARLETON.


First Lieut., First Infantry, Cal. Vols., A.A.A. Gen’l.





TUCSON, ARIZONA, June 16, 1862.

Lieut.-Col. JOSEPH R. WEST, President of a Board of Officers convened by Special Orders No. 17, current series, from these Headquarters:

                COLONEL:  The Colonel commanding the Column directs me to inclose to you, as one of the charges against Mr. Sylvester Mowry, the original of a letter, directed to General Carleton, from the Mowry Silver Mines, on the eleventh of May, 1862, and signed by one “T. Scheuner, Metallurgist, M.S.M.;”  also a paper in your own handwriting, purporting to be a statement of one William Pyburn, which seems to touch on the matter of the alleged furnishing of Captain Hunter’s men at the Patagonia Mines with percussion caps.

                The Board will also examine such documentary evidence as Lieut.-Col. Eyre may have brought from the Patagonia Mines and placed in your custody.

                The Board will examine into the facts touching the known political character of one Robinson, and whether he has been a guest and received aid and comfort recently from Mr. Mowry, and in all matters touching this case the Board will question the persons brought by Colonel Eyre from the Patagonia Mines, and such other persons as may be thought to be important witnesses in this matter not herein named, but who may become known to the Board during its investigation.

                The testimony and evidence you will received will be ex parte, and your inquiry will be analogous to that made by a Grand Jury in the administration of justice by the civil authorities.

                                I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,


First Lieutenant, First Infantry, California Volunteers.





TUCSON, ARIZ., July 16, 1862.

                The Board having examined the foregoing personal testimony and documentary evidence, as directed by Special Orders No. 17, and by the letters of the Colonel commanding the Column from California to the President of this Board, which said order and letter are copied on and made part of these records, are of opinion that said Sylvester Mowry is an enemy to the Government of the United States, and that he has been in treasonable correspondence and collusion with well known Secessionists, and has offered them aid and comfort when they were known publicly to be enemies of the legally constituted authority and Government of the United States, and that there are sufficient grounds to restrain the said Sylvester Mowry of his liberty, and bring him to trial before a Military Commission.


Lieutenant-Colonel, First Infantry, California Volunteers, President.


Captain, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers.


Captain, First Infantry, California Volunteers.

ERASTUS W. WOOD, Second Lieutenant, First Infantry, California Volunteers, Secretary.




To all whom it may concern:

                The Congress of the United States has set apart a portion of New Mexico, and organized it into a Territory complete by itself.

                This is known as the Territory of Arizona.  It comprises within its limits all the country eastward from the Colorado River, which is now occupied by the forces of the United States, known as the “Column from California.”  And as the flag of the United States shall be carried by this Column still further eastward, these limits will extend in that direction until they reach the furthest geographical boundary of this Territory.

                Now, in the present chaotic state in which Arizona is found to be, with no civil officers to administer the laws, indeed with an utter absence of all civil authority, and with no security of life or property within its borders, it becomes the duty of the undersigned to represent the authority of the United States over the people of Arizona, as well as over all those who compose, or are connected with, the Column from California.

                Thus by virtue of his office as Military Commander of the United States forces now here, and to meet the fact that wherever within our boundaries our colors fly, there the sovereign power of our country must at once be acknowledged and law and order at once prevail, the undersigned as a Military Governor assumes control of this territory until such time as the President of the United States shall otherwise direct.

                Thus also it is hereby declared that until civil officers shall be sent by the Government to organize the civil Courts for the administration of justice, the Territory of Arizona is hereby placed under martial law.

                Trials for capital offenses shall be held by a Military Commission, to be composed of not more than thirteen nor less than nine commissioned officers.

                The rules of evidence shall be those customary in practice under the common law.

                The trials shall be public, and shall be trials of record; and the mode of procedure shall be strictly in accordance with that of Courts-martial in the Army of the United States.

                Unless the public safety absolutely requires it, no execution shall follow conviction until the orders in the case by the President shall be known.

                Trials for minor offenses shall be held under the same rules, except that for these a Commission of not more than five nor less than three commissioned officers may sit, and a vote of the majority shall determine the issue.  In these cases the orders of the officer organizing the Commission shall be final.

                All matters relating to rights in property and lands which may be in dispute shall be determined for the time being by a Military Commission, to be composed of not more than five nor less than three commissioned officers.  Of course, appeals from the decisions of such Commissions can be taken to the civil Courts when once the latter have been established.

                There are certain fundamental rules for the government of the people of this Territory, which will be rigidly enforced:

                1.  No man who has arrived at lawful age shall be permitted to reside within this Territory who does not, without delay, subscribe to the oath of allegiance to the United States.

                2.  No words or acts calculated to impair that veneration which all good patriots should feel for our country and Government will be tolerated within this Territory or go unpunished if sufficient proof be had of them.

                3.  No man who does not pursue some lawful calling, or have some legitimate means of support, shall be permitted to remain in the Territory.

                Having no thought or motive in all this but the good of the people, and aiming only to do right, the undersigned confidently hopes and expects in all he does to further these ends to have the hearty cooperation of every good citizen and soldier in Arizona.

                All this is to go into effect from and after this date, and will continue in force unless disapproved or modified by General George Wright, United States Army, commanding the Department of the Pacific, under whose orders the Column from California has taken the field.

                Done at headquarters of the Column from California, in Tucson, Ariz., this eighth day of June, A.D., 1862.


Colonel First California Volunteers, Major U.S. Sixth Cavalry.



SAN FRANCISCO, June 28, 1862.

                The proclamation of Col. James H. Carleton, now Brigadier-General of Volunteers, U.S. Army, dated at his headquarters in Tucson, Territory of Arizona, June 8, 1862, is hereby approved and confirmed, and will remain in full force until the civil authority shall be reestablished in the Territory.


Brigadier-General, U.S. Army, Commanding.





TUCSON, ARIZONA, June 11, 1862.

To all whom it may concern:

                Be it known that under the authority assumed by the undersigned in the proclamation placing the Territory of Arizona under martial law, which proclamation was dated at Tucson, in Arizona, June eighth, A.D., 1862, I hereby appoint Acting Assistant Adjutant-General Benjamin Clark Cutler to be Secretary of State of the Territory of Arizona, while the said Territory remains under martial law, or until the time when a successor may be appointed to take his place.

                His duties shall be to record and to preserve all the acts and proceedings of the Governor in his Executive Department, and to transmit an authentic copy of these acts and proceedings, through the General commanding the Department of the Pacific, to the President of the United States on the last day of every month.

                And be it also known that the Secretary of State of the Territory, while it is under martial law, is hereby empowered to administer oaths.

                Given under my hand at Tucson, Ariz., June 11, 1862.


Military Governor of Arizona.





TUCSON, ARIZ., June 11, 1862.

To all whom it may concern:

                Be it known that by virtue of the authority vested in myself as Military Governor of Arizona, I hereby empower the following officers with the right to administer oaths within this Territory while it shall remain under martial law; that is to say:

                Lieut.-Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry, Cal. Vols.; Lieut.-Col. Edward E. Eyre, First Cavalry, Cal. Vols.; Maj. Edwin A. Rigg, First Infantry, Cal. Vols.; Maj. Theodore A. Coult, Fifth Infantry, Cal. Vols.; Maj. David Fergusson, First Cavalry, Cal. Vols.; Capt. Treadwell Moore, Assistant Quartermaster, U.S. Army; also the Presidents and Judge-Advocates of Military Commissions, when such Commissions are in session.


Colonel First Cal. Vols., Major U.S. Sixth Cavalry.

By the Governor.


Actg. Asst. Adj.-Genl., Military Secretary of State.




TUCSON, June 12, 1862.

To all whom it may concern:

                Be it known:

                I.  That from and after this date a monthly tax of five ($5) dollars for license to trade shall be levied on all merchants in Tucson, Arizona, including those who shall traffic within a mile in every direction from its suburbs, whose monthly sales of merchandise amount to five hundred ($500) dollars, or under, and an additional tax of one ($1) dollar per month for each additional monthly sale of one hundred ($100) dollars.

                II.  That every keeper of a gambling house within the aforesaid limits shall pay a tax of one hundred ($100) dollars per month for each and every table in said house whereon any banking game is played.

                III.  That every keeper of a bar, where wines, spirituous or malt liquors are to be sold, shall pay a tax of one hundred ($100) dollars per month to keep said bar.

                IV.  All keepers of gambling houses, for the non-payment of license for gambling tables, will be fined fifty ($50) dollars for the first offense; for the second offense he shall have his money, implements, tools, etc., seized, and the same shall be confiscated, and he shall pay a fine of one hundred ($100) dollars, and be forbidden to again gamble in this Territory.

                V.  Any person who, after this date, shall sell, without a license, any intoxicating liquors or drinks, shall be fined fifty ($50) dollars for the first offense; for the second offense he shall pay a fine of one hundred ($100) dollars, and forfeit all the liquors in his possession.

                VI.  The commanding officer of Tucson is hereby empowered to grant licenses under these rules, and collect taxes, fines, and forfeitures.  The moneys thus collected shall be turned over to the Medical Director, who shall receipt for the same and add it to the Hospital Fund, to be used exclusively for the benefit of the sick and wounded soldiers belonging to the Column from California until further orders.

                VII.  All sales made by the Government of the United States shall be exempt from taxation, and no license is necessary for the sale of forage, subsistence stores, fruits, or vegetables.

                By order of Colonel CARLETON.


Actg. Asst. Adjt.-Genl., Military Secretary of State.


            Carleton was commissioned Brigadier-General of Volunteers April 28, 1862.  He received his commission and assumed the rank and title of Brigadier-General about the middle of June, same year.



TUCSON, ARIZ., July 22, 1862.

Maj. RICHARD C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal.:

                MAJOR:  In my letter to you dated June eighteenth I informed you that I sent Expressman John Jones, Sergeant Wheeling, of Company F, First Infantry, California Volunteers, and a Mexican guide named Chares with communications for General Canby.  These men started from Tucson on the evening of the fifteenth of June; on the eighteenth they were attacked by a party of Apaches, and Sergeant Wheeling and the guide, Chares, were killed, and Jones, almost by a miracle, succeeded in getting through the Indians and, after a hot pursuit on their part, made out to reach the Rio Grande at a point known as Picacho, six miles above Mesilla.  Here he was taken prisoner by the Secessionists, who brought him before Colonel Steele (William Steele, late Second Dragoons), who examined him, took his dispatches, and threw him into jail.  He managed, however, to get word to General Canby that he was there, and that the Column from California was really coming, an achievement that was considered absolutely impracticable.  However, as soon as Steele ascertained this matter as a fact, hurried preparations were made to abandoned the country.  Meantime General Canby had sent a large force to Fort Craig to move on Mesilla as soon as transportation could be provided.

                A strong reconnoitering force, under Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, left Tucson on the twenty-first of June, and, after a hard march, arrived at the Rio Grande, near Fort Thorn, on the fourth of July.  On the fifth this force occupied that work, it having been abandoned by the enemy.  Here the colors were run up by the California troops.  Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre was then reinforced by a squadron of the United States Third Cavalry, and, having constructed a raft and built a boat, was at the last advices about to cross the river to march on Fillmore and Fort Bliss, in Texas.  Steele meantime had abandoned Mesilla, and was making his way to Texas.  The Mexican population was rising on every hand, and were killing his men and running off his stock.  Is it said that Teel’s Battery, C.S.A., the one taken from Canby at Valverde, had been attacked some thirty miles below Fort Bliss and taken by the people, who had hovered around it to the number of one thousand five hundred.  It was believed that neither Steele nor Teel would ever reach Texas. 

                Sibley and Colonel Riely had fallen back on Texas in May, leaving Steele with what was considered force enough to hold Arizona.

                All this news came last night; it was brought by Captain McCleave, who had been exchanged for two Lieutenants, one of whom was Steele’s Adjutant, who had been taken by Captain Fritz, First Cavalry, California Volunteers.  Captain Fritz went after Colonel Steele with a flag of truce to effect the exchange.  He overtook Colonel Steele twenty miles below Fort Fillmore in full retreat.

                As you have been informed, the uncommon drought of this summer had so dried up the country that it was impracticable to move a large force in the direction of the Rio Grande until the rains commenced falling.  Usually this occurs by the twenty-fourth of June, but this year there has been but little fall even yet.  The Column, however, has been taking the road by installments, commencing with Robert’s company of infantry and Cremony’s company of cavalry, which were sent with twenty-five thousand pounds of corn and thirty days’ rations for Eyre, in case he was obliged to fall back to the Rio de Sauz, one hundred and twenty-eight miles from Tucson, starting on the ninth of July.  (See letter to Colonel West, marked A, herewith inclosed.)  I also inclose Colonel Eyre’s report dated at Fort Thorn, July 6, 1862.  This officer deserves great credit for his enterprise.  I trust the General will notice the conduct of himself and men.  This report is marked B.  I also send a subsequent report of Colonel Eyre’s, dated July 8, 1862, marked C, and also one still later, dated July 11, 1862, marked D, and still another, dated July 14, 1862, marked E, and also a letter from Colonel Chivington, marked F; also a letter from General Canby, marked G, and letters from General Canby to Colonel Chivington, dated June 9, June 16, June 18, June 27, July 1, and July 4, 1862.

                I also inclose General Orders Nos. 10 and 11, from these headquarters.

                The troops marched on the days specified.  I shall leave this post to-morrow and move rapidly to the front.  If a demonstration on northwestern Texas will serve as a diversion in favor of forces landing on the coast, that State will soon be ours.  The country is still dry, but we shall do our best.

                                Respectfully, your obedient servant,


Brigadier-General, U.S. Army.





FORT THORN, ARIZ., July 6, 1862.

                LIEUTENANT:  In compliance with orders received from the Colonel commanding, dated June 17, 1862, I have the honor to make the following report:

                June 21. – Left Tucson at 3 o’clock A.M., with Captain Fritz, Lieutenants Haden and Baldwin, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, and one hundred and forty men.  Marched thirty-five miles to Cienegas de los Pimos, and encamped at 12:30 P.M.  Water and grazing abundant.  The road to-day is very good, with the exception of two or three hills.  At a distance of about twenty-eight miles the road descends into the cienega, then seven miles to water near the burned station which stood on the hill to the right of the road.  Course, southeast; thirty-five miles.

                June 22. – Left cienega at 6 A.M., marching over a high rolling country, but good wagon road and splendid grazing all the way for a distance of about twenty-two miles, when the road descends through a canon for one mile, and then opens on the San Pedro Valley; two miles further the river is reached at the overland mail station.  Strong bridge over the river.  Water and grass abundant.  Wood very scarce.  Course, northeast; twenty-five miles.

                There found the name of Jones, the expressman.

                June 23. – Left camp at crossing of the San Pedro at 7:30 A.M.  The road at once leaves the river and enters a valley about one mile wide and four miles long, when it terminates at the foot of the mesa, which is gained through a narrow canon in which is a long but not very steep hill.  The canon is about one and one half miles, when the top of the mesa is reached; then about fourteen miles to overland station at Dragoon Springs, at which place we arrived at 12:30 P.M. and camped.  Found water sufficient by digging up the canon two miles, the trail to which is difficult in some places to lead animals over.  Course, northeast; nineteen and one half miles.

                June 24. – Left Dragoon Springs at 10:30 A.M.  Was detained in consequence of scarcity of water.  Marched twenty-five miles over an excellent road to Ewell’s Station, arriving there at 5:30 P.M.  Sent Captain Fritz and six men with spades to examine the spring in the mountain north of the station.  He had returned to station by the time the command arrived, and reported only enough water for the men.  Camped at 6 P.M.  Course, northeast; twenty-five miles.

                June 25. – Left Ewell’s Station at 1 A.M.  Marched fifteen miles over very hilly and in places a very rocky road to station in Apache Pass and camped at 6 A.M.  Water scarce.  No grass.  Course, northeast; fifteen miles.

                About 12 M., I being engaged at the spring superintending the watering of animals, it being necessary to dip it with tin cups, four shots were heard in the vicinity of where the  horses that had been watered were being grazed under a strong guard.  Immediately thereafter it was reported that Indians were in sight, and that the guard had fired to give the alarm.  Almost immediately thereafter it was reported to me that the Indians were waving a white flag.  I at once started for them, taking with me a white flag, and Mr. Newcomb as interpreter.  At the end of about one hour I succeeded in getting sufficiently near one of them to be understood.  I explained to him what I desired, and asked for the chief.  At this time at least seventy-five to one hundred Indians were in sight, many of them mounted on good-looking horses, and all of them armed with firearms – some with rifles and six-shooting pistols.  Of the latter I observed a great number, and occasionally single-barreled shotguns.

                When the chief came forward I told him we were Americans, and that our great Captain lived at Washington; that we wished to be friends of the Apaches; that at present I was only traveling through their country, and desired that he would not interfere with my men or animals; that a great Captain was at Tucson with a large number of soldiers; that he wished to have a talk with all the Apache chiefs and to make peace with them and make them presents.  He professed a great desire to be friendly with the Americans and assured me that neither my men nor animals should be molested.

                He asked for tobacco and something to eat.  I gave him all that could possibly be spared, and we parted with a request on his part that I would meet him at the same place at sunset.  On my return it was reported to me that three of the men were missing.  A party of thirty was at once sent out in the vicinity of where the firing was heard, and after an hour’s search, the bodies of the missing men were found, stripped of all their clothing, and two of them scalped.  Each was shot through the chest with firearms and lanced through the neck.

                They were victims to their own imprudence, the entire command having been repeatedly warned by me not to wander from camp.  It appears they had started, leading their horses, from the spring where the watering was being done, over the ridge into another gulch, when they came on the Indians and were murdered.  The Indians succeeded in getting one horse.  When the bodies of our murdered men were found, instant pursuit of the Indians was made, some of whom were seen on a hill half a mile distant; but being unable to come up with them a return to camp was ordered, carrying in the dead bodies, which were buried, the entire command being present.

                The animals now being all watered, or as much as could be obtained for them, and there being very little grass in the pass, at 6 P.M. left camp, marched out and made a dry camp on the plain, two miles beyond the canon.  Course, east-northeast; four miles.

                At 11 P.M. a volley of six or eight shots was fired into camp, wounding Acting Assistant Surgeon Kittridge in the head and killing one horse at the picket line.

                June 26. – Left dry camp No. 1 at 3:30 A.M.; marched fifteen miles over an excellent road to San Simon Station; then turned square to the right, and marched thirteen miles up the dry bed of the river to a large cienega, and camped at 2 P.M.  Course, east-northeast and southeast; twenty-eight miles.

                This is a splendid camping place, water and grass in the greatest abundance.

                The proper road to the cienega turns to the right from the stage road, about six miles from Apache Pass and around the point of mountain.  It comes on the San Simon one mile below the water.

                At 12 midnight camp was alarmed by a shot fired by one of the guards.  On examination it was found to be a coyote which he mistook in the dark for an Indian crawling through the scattered bushes, but which he instantly killed.  This was a very hard day’s march on men and animals, being obliged to leave dry camp without breakfast owing to the scarcity of water, having but eight five-gallon kegs in which to carry water for the men, and not being able to get at the pass as much water as the animals required.

                June 27. – Laid over.

                June 28. – Left camp at Cienega of San Simon at 4 P.M.; marched five miles north-northeast to the pass in the mountains; road heavy.  On arriving at the pass found the road through it very good, and the pass wide.  Marched fifteen miles from San Simon, and made dry camp No. 2 at 10:15 P.M.  Course, north-northeast; fifteen miles.

                June 29. – Left dry camp at 4 A.M.; marched nine miles to Lightendorffer’s Well, in Round Mountain Canon; road good; well on right of and close to the road.  It is about eight feet square and seven deep; rock bottom.  Halted at well one hour; obtained a very limited supply of water for my command.

                This is a tolerably good camping place for three companies of infantry.  By care they could obtain sufficient water, which is good.

                Left Lightendorffer’s Well at 8 A.M.; marched twenty-two miles to Densmore’s Station (Soldier’s Farewell) at 5 P.M., and halted.  Discovered here a small spring about two or three miles up the arroyo north of station, and a hole of bad water eight hundred yards south of station.  Left Densmore’s Station at 8 P.M.; marched fourteen miles to Cow Springs, and camped at 12 midnight.  Water and grazing abundant.  The road from the Cienega of San Simon to this place is good for loaded teams, excepting four or five miles to the pass.  Course, northeast; forty-six miles.

                Soon after leaving Densmore’s Station found two men on the side of the road under rather suspicious circumstances; took three letters from them; one directed to commander of Federal forces at Tucson, or en route.  Put the men in charge of guard and brought them back.  Letters herewith inclosed, marked Nos. 1, 2, and 3.  There discovered nine men camped, who proved to be a party sent by Colonel Chivington, commanding Sourth Military District of New Mexico at Fort Craig, with a letter to Colonel Carleton, with verbal orders to deliver it to the commander of the advance of his column when met with, and return to Fort Craig.  Read the communication, and returned Mr. Milligan and one of his party with the answer to Fort Craig, at 3 P.M. on the thirtieth instant, at which place he would arrive on the evening of the 2d proximo.  Letter of Colonel Chivington, and my answer hereto, herewith inclosed.

                From Mr. Milligan I learned of the capture of Jones, the expressman, by the Secessionists at the Pichaco, near Mesilla, his two companions having been killed by Indians at Apache Pass, and himself chased by them for a great many miles.  This information was brought to Fort Craig by a friendly Mexican who was present at the capture of Jones.

                June 30. – Laid over.

                July 1. – This morning a number of men were discovered by the lookout approaching from the direction of the Pino Alto Gold Mines; sent out a party and brought them into camp.  They proved to be a party of thirty Mexican miners returning to Sonora in consequence of the almost total absence of provisions at the mines.  Allowed them to proceed on their journey.

                Left Cow Springs at 8 A.M.; arrived at the Rio Miembres at 1 P.M. and camped two miles above station.  Water and grazing abundant, and of the best quality; road good.  Course, northeast; sixteen miles.

                July 2. – Laid over.

                At 1 o’clock this morning one of the pickets discovered persons approaching camp. 

                They were arrested and brought in, twelve men and two women, one a German, the other Mexicans.  They also were from the mines en route for Mesilla.  Ordered them confined in order to secure the secrecy of my movements.  At 9 A.M. sent out party of twenty men to examine Cooke’s Canon, with orders to arrest, if possible, all persons they may meet with, and remain at Cooke’s Spring until the command came up.

                July 3. – Left Miembres River at 6 A.M.  Marched twelve miles over a good road to Cooke’s Pass.  From here to Summit, road hilly; a long, rocky, but not very steep hill brings you to the top of the pass; from there the descent to the spring is good.  Distance from pass to spring six miles.  Course, north-northeast and northeast; eighteen miles.

                There came up with the party sent in advance yesterday.  They reported no person in sight and no fresh traces.

                July 4. – Left Cooke’s Spring at 6:30 A.M.  Took Fort Thorn road, which keeps a north-northeast course, while the Mesilla road turns to the right immediately at the springs and bears east-northeast, passing the overland mail station which is seen on the hill about a half mile distant.  Marched thirteen miles to Mule Spring (good road).  Here no water could be found, even by digging, having sent a party in advance with spades for that purpose.

                Left Mule Spring at 12 M.  Marched twenty-two miles to the Rio Grande, and camped at 7 P.M., near Fort Thorn.  Course, north-northeast and northeast; thirty five miles

                The road for about eight miles after leaving Mule Spring is very good, when it enters a rolling country, the hills becoming more and more abrupt for a distance of about six miles, when it descends into a broad canon, which is followed (on a good road) to the river.

                Immediately on making camp the national colors were raised amid the long and continued cheers of the assembled command.  This was the first time the stars and stripes floated on the Rio Grande below Fort Craig since the occupation of the country by the Confederate troops, and it being the anniversary of our National Independence was not calculated to dampen the ardor of the command.

                We are now within thirty-five miles of the enemy, which the prisoners whom I have taken variously estimate from two hundred to eight hundred strong.  As soon as the horses have a little recruited – they being considerably reduced on a march of about three hundred miles through a broiling sun, and over a country utterly destitute of water for distances ranging from twenty-five to sixty miles – will reconnoiter his position and endeavor to ascertain his strength, which I have but little doubt of accomplishing, and in case he does not greatly outnumber me, will give him a fight.

                July 5. – Moved three miles down the river to and reoccupied Fort Thorn; three miles.

                                I am, Lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Commanding.

Lieut. BEN. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Column from California, Tucson, Arizona.





FORT THORN, ARIZ., July 8, 1862.

                LIEUTENANT:  I have the honor to report the reoccupation of Fort Thorn by the squadron of First Cavalry, California Volunteers, under my command on the evening of the fifth instant.  Immediately thereafter the national colors were run up, and the old flag once more floated over the garrison.

                On the morning of the sixth instant an express arrived from Fort Craig with a communication from Colonel Chivington, First Colorado Volunteers, commanding  Southern Military District of New Mexico, a copy of which is herewith inclosed.  He also sent a communication addressed to Colonel Steele, Confederate States Army, empowering me to negotiate an exchange for Captain McCleave and the man who were made prisoners with him.

                Soon after the express from Colonel Chivington arrived a party of men were seen approaching from the direction of Mesilla; one of them proved to be Captain McCleave on his way to Fort Craig, bringing with him a proposition from Colonel Steele for an exchange for Captain Gardner, Confederate States Army.  Having learned from the expressman just arrived that Captain Gardner died a few days since, I at once sent Captain Fritz, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, to Fort Fillmore with a request to Colonel Steele to name any other Captain General Canby had made prisoner in exchange for Captain McCleave.

                Also proposing an exchange for the men taken with him, as well as an exchange for our expressman, Jones, and a Mr. John Lemon, of Mesilla, who was extremely kind to Captain McCleave during his confinement, and who had horses readily saddled and hid out for Jones’ escape; he was ordered to be hung, and was taken out to a tree for that purpose, but after hanging a Mr. Marshall, who was taken out with him, his execution was postponed.  Captain Fritz will probably be back to-night, when I will at once send Captain McCleave with a party of twenty-five men through to Tucson.  It is not safe for a less number to travel that road on account of the Indians, and even then with the utmost caution.

                If it is the desire of the Colonel commanding to keep open communication between Tucson and the Rio Grande, I would respectfully recommend that a company of infantry be stationed at Dragoon Springs and two companies at the Apache Pass.  That corps would be far more effective against the Indians in the rugged mountains at the points above named than cavalry; besides, horses could not be kept in flesh on the dry grass alone; they would be utterly useless in two weeks’ riding.  At this season of the year sufficient water and of a good quality can be obtained for two companies of infantry at the foot of the mountain four miles north of Ewell’s Station.  The spring is prominently marked by a large white spot on the mountain, which is directly over the water.

                The Rio Grande has been unusually high this summer, almost the entire bottom between Fort Craig and Mesilla being still overflowed.  It is impossible at this time to approach Mesilla on the west side of the river, a new channel having been washed out on that side of town through which the largest portion of the water flows; besides, the bottom for a long distance is overflowed, and the soil being of a loose nature animals mire down in attempting to get through it.

                This morning I sent Captain McCleave with a small party to examine the San Diego Crossing, eighteen miles below here, to ascertain if the river can be forded at that point.  The moment a crossing can be effected it is my intention, unless otherwise ordered by General Canby, to move on Mesilla and reoccupy Forts Fillmore and Bliss.  When that is done that portion of the proclamation of the Colonel commanding will not only have been carried out, but the sacred soil of Texas will have been invaded.

                Captain McCleave reports Colonel Steele, with the rear of Sibley’s brigade, making hurried exertions to get away from Texas.  He is pressing every team, both mule and oxen, he can find into service, compelling the owners, generally Mexicans, to take Confederate scrip therefor.  The same mode is resorted to by him in regard to provisions.

                Captain Howland, Third United States Cavalry, in advance of his squadron, has just arrived.  His command, one hundred men, will probably be here this evening.  His horses are in shocking condition.  Should we come up with Colonel Steele, and a mounted charge be made, it must be done by the squadron of my regiment.

                On the capture of Jones greatly increased exertions were made by Colonel Steele to get away.  Mesilla was evacuated and Captain McCleave, who was at the time on parole to the limits of the town, was immediately confined under a strong guard.  Mr. White, of the Pimos Villages, has been released, and will probably be here with the return of Captain Fritz.  The horses are out grazing, under a strong guard, from daybreak until dark; then tied up to the picket-line, with as much grass as they eat during the night.  They are doing very well, but have not yet recovered from the effects of the very distressing march from Tucson here.  Captain McCleave has just returned and reports the road down the river almost impassable for loaded wagons, and the river swimming at the crossing.

                July 9. – Sent Captain McCleave, with an escort and two wagons, to Fort Craig for supplies.  The squadron of the Third United States Cavalry, one hundred strong, arrived and gone into quarters at this post.

                Captain Fritz returned this evening, having effected an exchange for Captain McCleave and the others named in my communication to Colonel Steele, a copy of which is herewith inclosed.

                Two Lieutenants were given in exchange for Captain McCleave, as Colonel Steele affected to know of no Captains of theirs for that purpose, although there are a number.  His real object was to exchange for officers of his own regiment only.

                About six o’clock this evening, an express arrived from Captain McCleave, informing me of an attack on his party as they were moving up the river, by the Navajoes, sixty or seventy strong; that he had made camp, but was being surrounded by them.  I immediately sent Captain Howland with Lieutenant Baldwin and forty men to his relief.

                I forward herewith, for the information of the Colonel commanding, all communications received or written by me since my arrival on the Rio Grande.

                                I am, Lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Commanding.

Lieuenant. BEN. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Column from California, Tucson, Arizona.





FORT THORN, ARIZONA, July 14, 1862.

                LIEUTENANT:  I have the honor to report the arrival here yesterday, of another express from General Canby, the second one alluded to in Colonel Chivington’s communication of the seventh instant.

          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *

I leave here to-morrow morning with my command for Mesilla.

                On examination I found the road from here to Rough and Ready Station impracticable, and have determined to make a road to the San Diego Crossing, and then pass the river on a raft, which I am now having made for that purpose, and which will be floated down to the crossing.  The road on the east side of the river from San Diego to Mesilla is good.  It is my determination, unless otherwise ordered, to hoist the national colors over Mesilla, Fort Fillmore, and Fort Bliss, before the end of the present month.

          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *          *

                I neglected in my report of the march to this place to give the names of the men killed by the Indians at Apache Pass.  Their names are Privates James F. Keith, Peter Maloney, and Albert Schmidt, of Company B, First Cavalry, California Volunteers.

I am, Lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Commanding.

Lieuenant BEN. C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Column from California, Tucson, Arizona.





TUCSON, ARIZ., July 17, 1862.


No. 10.

                The Column from California will move to the Rio Grande in the following order:

                1.  On the twentieth instant, Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry, California Volunteers, with Companies B, C, and K, of his regiment, and Company G, of the Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers.  This command at the Rio de Sauz, will receive the addition of Company E, of West’s regiment, and Thompson’s mounted howitzers.  Maj. Theodore A. Coult, of the Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, is assigned to duty with this command.  Colonel West will take forty thousand rounds of rifle-musket ammunition.

                2.  On the twenty-first instant a second command, consisting of Shinn’s light battery, United States Third Artillery, and Companies A, First Infantry, and B, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, will take up its line of march for the Rio Grande.  This command will be supplied with all the artillery ammunition now here which pertains to Shinn’s battery, and seventeen thousand rounds of ammunition for the rifle-musket.

                3.  On the twenty-third instant a third command, under Lieut.-Col. Edwin A. Rigg, consisting of Companies I, F, D, and H, Fisrt Infantry, California Volunteers, will start for the Rio Grande.  This command will have twenty-eight thousand rounds of ammunition for the rifle-musket.

                4.  Each of these commands will be supplied with subsistence for thirty days, with at least two tents for each company, and with a good supply of intrenching tools.  Each command will also have one hospital tent (complete) and an ambulance for the sick and wounded, and will have a forge and material for shoeing horses and mules, and also a water-tank and a good supply of water-kegs.

                5.  On the thirty-first instant a train of wagons lade with forty days’ supplies of subsistence for the whole command hereby ordered forward, with the following ammunition, viz.: forty thousand rounds for the rifle-musket, thirty thousand rounds for the Sharps’ carbine, and twenty thousand rounds for the navy size Colt’s revolver, together with such other supplies of clothing, tents, tools, spare wagon timbers, leather, wagon grease, horseshoes, mule shoes, horseshoe nails, stationery, etc., as may be required, will leave Tucson for the Rio Grande, escorted by Companies A, Fifth Infantry, and A, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, each furnished with sixty days’ rations.  This command will have an ambulance, forge, and water-tank, and such other articles as may be required to render it efficient.

                6.  Company D, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, will move from Tubac directly for the crossing of the San Pedro, where it will arrive on the twenty-second instant.  From that point it will form the advance guard of the Column, and habitually, unless otherwise ordered, will march one day in front of West’s command.

                7.  Captain Cremony’s Company B, of the Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, will march near the head of the Column to serve as flankers or as videttes, as occasion may require.

                8.  The staff officers attached to these headquarters, except the Chief Commissary, will, until further orders, move with West’s command.  Surgeon Prentiss, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, will move with the second command, and Surgeon Wooster, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, will move with Rigg’s command.

                9.  The Chief Quartermaster, Chief Commissary, and Medical Director are charged with giving the most perfect efficiency possible to all matters pertaining to the public service in their several departments, keeping in mind the fact that this Column is presumed now to move forward prepared at all points to engage the enemy at any moment by night or by day.  Let nothing be omitted or neglected which will give due effects to this idea, whether on the march or on the field of battle.

                10.  That every soldier may move forward with a light, free step, now that we approach the enemy, he will no longer be required to carry his knapsack.

                11.  This is the time when every soldier in this Column looks forward with a confident hope that he, too, will have the distinguished honor of striking a blow for the old stars and stripes; when he, too, feels in his heart, that he is the champion of the holiest cause that has ever yet nerved the arm of a patriot.

                The General commanding the Column desires that such a time shall be remembered by all, but more particularly by those who, from their guilt, have been so unfortunate as to be prisoners on such an occasion.  He, therefore, orders that all soldiers under his command who may now be held in confinement shall be at once released.

                By command of Brigadier-General CARLETON.


First Lieutenant, First Infantry, Cal. Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.





LAS CRUCES, ARIZ., August 30, 1862.

                LIEUTENANT:  In compliance with verbal orders received from the General commanding the Column, I have the honor to report that immediately after my arrival on the Rio Grande, July 4, 1862, I sent a scouting party down the river as far as the San Diego Crossing, for the double purpose of ascertaining if the enemy had pickets within that distance of my camp, and also whether the high stage of water in the river rendered it impracticable to move my command that far, for the purpose of crossing, it being my intention to follow, and, if possible, overtake the retreating Texans under Colonel Steele.  On their return they reported it impracticable to get to the crossing with wagons, but that the river was  falling fast, and that in a short time, say one week, I would be able to accomplish my purpose of moving on Fort Fillmore, where a portion of the Texans were then quartered.  I, therefore, determined to remain at Fort Thorn for a short time longer, to recruit the men and animals and to receive reinforcements from Fort Craig, which I had asked for from Cow Springs, having sent an express from that point on the twenty-eighth of June.  On the eighth ultimo Captain Howland, Third United States Cavalry, with one hundred men, arrived at Fort Thorn, and reported to me for duty.  I was now still more anxious to pursue the enemy, being confident of my ability to successfully cope with his disorganized and disheartened troops, although they outnumbered me more than two to one.  On the morning of the tenth ultimo I received a communication from Colonel Chivington, commanding Southern Military District of New Mexico, of which the following is an extract:

                “You will do all you can to learn the enemy’s strength, position, and purpose; but General Canby does not design an advance from where you are until he can go in force.  I am under orders to advance to Santa Barbara or thereabouts with sixteen companies of infantry and a battery of four six-pounder guns and two twenty-four pounder howitzers, and an additional cavalry force to support the advance of General Carleton, and to cooperate with the forces under him in the reoccupation of the Valley of the Mesilla.”

                Although this was not a positive order to remain where I was, yet it intimated so clearly the desire of the District Commander to lead the advance on Mesilla and Fort Fillmore, that I felt exceedingly embarrassed as to whether I would be authorized in leaving Fort Thorn until the arrival there of Colonel Chivington; but on consultation with Captains Howland, Tilford, and Fritz, I determined, unless more positively ordered to remain, to move down to the San Diego Crossing as soon as the water would permit.  Accordingly, on the thirteenth ultimo, I sent Wagonmaster Black with a party to the crossing to ascertain if it was yet practicable to get the train of thirteen wagons to that point.  On his return the same day he reported favorably, and on the fifteenth ultimo I left with my command and arrived at the crossing on the sixteenth, a distance of eighteen miles.  On the seventeenth ultimo I had succeeded in crossing successfully my command in a small boat which I caused to be made for that purpose before leaving Fort Thorn.  On the nineteenth ultimo I received from Lieut. F. Van Vleet, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, the following communication:

                “I am instructed by the Colonel commanding the district to inform you that your troops will not cross the river until further orders.”

                This was from Colonel Howe, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, he then being in command of the Southern Military District of New Mexico; but having crossed the river before its receipt, and having received supplies from Fort Craig, I determined to push on to Roblaro or Dona Ana and there await his further orders, and so wrote him.  But on my arrival at the latter place I found neither forage nor grazing for the animals, and pushed on to Las Cruces, where quarters were found for the command in unoccupied houses belonging to notorious Secessionists.

                On my arrival at Las Cruces I at once made inquiry as to the whereabouts of the Texans, and learned from reliable authority that a portion of them were yet at Franklin, Tex.; that they were collecting at that point a large amount of Government property, which had been by them secreted at different places on their march up the river, and that they designed selling it to citizens of El Paso, Mexico.  This property I could have undoubtedly taken, and in all probability have captured the Texans then at Franklin, had I at once pushed on to that point; but the strong intimation not to leave Fort Thorn which I had received from Colonel Chivington, and the positive order not to cross the river which I received from Colonel Howe, and my letter to him that I would await his further orders at Las Cruces, compelled me to remain at the latter place.  Indeed, by moving farther down the river I would have run counter to the expressed wishes of the district commanders of the Southern Military District of New Mexico, if not against their positive orders.  On the twenty-eighth ultimo I received a positive order from Colonel Howe not to leave Las Cruces until further orders.  Subsequently, while accompanying the General commanding on his march to Fort Quitman, I learned that Colonel Steele greatly feared he would be overtaken by the California troops, and in his hurried retreat burned a number of his wagons and destroyed a large amount of ammunition.  I also learned that so much were his men disheartened and so thoroughly disorganized that, had they been attacked by even a small force, they would have at once surrendered.  Certain it is that an opportunity would have been given them to do so had it not been for the orders received from Fort Craig, for I should certainly have followed, and as certainly overtaken them before they left the river at Fort Quitman.

I am, Lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Commanding.

Lieut.  B.C. CUTLER, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Column from California, Franklin, Tex.




First Lieutenant, California Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.



SAN FRANCISCO, October 22, 1862.



Assistant Adjutant-General





SANTA FE, N. MEX., September 20, 1862.

To Lieut.-Col. RICHARD C. DRUM, Assistant Adjutant-General U.S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.:

                COLONEL:  I wrote to you on the twenty-second day of July informing you of all the important events connected with the Column from California, from June eighteenth to that date.  I then inclosed copies of General Orders Nos. 10 and 11 from these headquarters, which prescribed the manner in which the Column should march across the desert from Tucson to the Rio Grande.  I left Tucson myself on the twenty-third of July, passed Colonel West with most of my troops, encamped on the San Pedro on the twenty-fourth, and led the advance of the Column from that point to Las Cruces, New Mexico, with one company of infantry and two of cavalry.  From the hostile attitude of the Chi-ri-ca-hui, I found it indispensably necessary to establish a post in what is known as Apache Pass; it is known as Fort Bowie, and garrisoned by one hundred rank and file of the Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, and thirteen rank and file of Company A, First Cavalry, California Volunteers; this post commands the water in that pass.  Around this water the Indians have been in the habit of lying in ambush, and shooting the troops and travelers as they came to drink.  In this way they have killed three of Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre’s command, and in attempting to keep Captain Roberts’ Company, First Infantry, California Volunteers, away from the spring a fight ensued, in which Captain Roberts had two men killed and two wounded.  Captain Roberts reports that the Indians lost ten killed.  In this affair the men of Captain Roberts’ company are reported as behaving with great gallantry.

                Two miles beyond Apache Pass I found the remains of nine white men, who had been murdered by the Indians.  They were a party traveling from the Pino Alto Mines to California; one of them had been burned at the stake.  We saw the charred bones, and the burnt ends of the rope by which he had been tied.  The remains of seven of these men were buried on that spot.  From the Rio de Sauz to Ojo de la Vaca there was a great dearth of water.  At the latter place I addressed a letter to General Canby, giving him all the elements going to make up the Column, the object of its march, and the wishes of General Wright.  A copy of that letter is herewith inclosed, marked A.  Having been informed that a large number of men, women, and children were in a destitute and starving condition at the Pino Alto Mines, forty odd miles northeastward from the Ojo de la Vaca, I directed Colonel West to furnish them with some subsistence stores as a gratuity.  (See letter of instructions to Colonel West, marked B, and Captain Shirland’s report on the starving condition of these people, marked C.)  I arrived at the Rio Grande on the seventh day of August, at a point three miles above Fort Thorn, and immediately communicated with General Canby by letter, marked D.  On the ninth of August I passed the Rio Grande, at the San Diego Crossing, eighteen miles below Fort Thorn.  The river was still very high and very rapid, but the men stripped off their clothes, and dragged the wagons through by main force; the baggage, subsistence stores, ammunition, etc., were crossed in two small leaky boats.  At this point we built a larger and better boat for the use of the detachment of the Column still to come up.

                The head of the Column arrived at Las Cruces on the tenth day of August.  Here I found the advance guard, under Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, strengthened by four companies of the United States Fifth Infantry, which had been sent down from Fort Craig.  Two companies of regular cavalry had also been sent down to reinforce Colonel Eyre, but these had been recalled, and had started back to Fort Craig on the ninth of August.  Unfortunately Colonel Eyre had been forbidden by Colonel Chivington and Colonel Howe to proceed in the direction of Texas below Las Cruces, otherwise I believe he would have captured the whole of Steele’s force of Confederate troops.  (See his report on this subject, marked E.)  The energy, enterprise, and resources of Colonel Eyre, as exhibited in his rapid march from Tucson to the Rio Grande, his crossing of that river, and his unlooked-for presence directly upon the heels of the retreating Rebels, cannot be too highly appreciated.  He exhibited some of the finest qualities of a soldier, and had he not been fettered by orders from higher authority than himself, he would without doubt have achieved advantages over the enemy creditable to himself and to the Column from California.  But for his timely arrival upon the Rio Grande, Las Cruces and Mesilla would both have been laid out in ashes by the enemy.  Hampered as he was by orders, he nevertheless managed to hoist the stars and stripes upon Fort Thorn, Fort Fillmore, Mesilla, and Fort Bliss in Texas.  On the eleventh of August General Canby wrote me a very handsome letter, in which he liberally offered to furnish the Column with all the supplies it might need, together with $30,000 subsistence funds.  General Wright will be gratified to read it.  It is marked F.  It will be seen by that letter that the medical supplies and ordnance stores in the Department of New Mexico are so abundant as to preclude the necessity of any more of these stores being purchased or shipped in the Department of the Pacific for any of the troops east of Fort Yuma belonging to the Column of California.

                On the eleventh of August General Canby sent to me another communication, in which he treats of the impracticability of an invasion of Texas from this direction, and in which he speaks of removing the regular troops from New Mexico and of receiving other reinforcements from California.  As the views set forth seem to be of great value, I submit it for the perusal of General Wright.  It is marked G.  On the twelfth of August General Canby wrote still another letter, in which he authorized me to use my own judgment in regard to the disposition of troops in Arizona and southern New Mexico.  It is marked H.  My letter to General Canby, dated August fifteenth, together with General Orders Nos. 14 and 15, herewith inclosed, will inform General Wright of the distribution of the troops along the Rio Grande.  These communications are marked I.  On the sixteenth of August I started with three companies of cavalry for Fort Bliss, in Texas.  At the town of Franklin, opposite El Paso, I found a surgeon of the Confederate Army and twenty-five sick and disabled Confederate soldiers, whom I made prisoners of war by order of General Canby.  I also found that a large amount of hospital stores and Quartermaster’s property, which once had belonged to the United States, was in store-rooms connected with the Custom House at El Paso, in Mexico.  These stores I managed to recover.  There were twelve wagon loads of them.  I sent them to the depot which I had established at Mesilla.  I then proceeded nearly one hundred miles farther down the valley of the Rio Grande into Texas.  The object of my march was to restore confidence to the people.  They had been taught by the Texans that we were coming amongst them as marauders and as robbers.  When they found we treated them kindly, and paid them a fair price for all the supplies we required, they rejoiced to find, as they came under the old flag once more, that they could now have protection and be treated justly; the abhorrence they expressed of the Confederate troops and of the rebellion convinced me that their loyalty to the United States is now beyond question.

                On the twenty-second of August the troops of the Column from California hoisted the stars and stripes over Fort Quitman.  This was done by Captain John C. Cremony, with his Company B, Second Cavalry, California Volunteers.  On the same day Captain Shirland, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, was directed to proceed to Fort Davis, one hundred and forty miles still farther into Texas, and hoist the national colors over that post.  (See General Orders No. 16, herewith inclosed, marked K.)  How well Captain Shirland performed this duty, and how gallantly he and his men behaved in a fight with the Indians, will be seen by his report, a copy of which is herewith inclosed, marked L.  Captain Roberts’ company, which whipped the Indians in Apache Pass, is from Sacramento.  Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, who led my advance guard to the Rio Grande and hoisted the colors over Forts Thorn, Fillmore, Bliss, and Mesilla, is from Sacramento; and so is Captain Shirland, who hoisted the stars and stripes two hundred and forty miles farther into the State of Texas, and also whipped the Indians in that neighborhood.  This speaks nobly for the men from that city.  I inclose a telegraphic communication from General Canby to the Adjutant-General of the Army, dated August tenth, in which he requests that a regiment more of infantry and five companies of cavalry be sent into the Department of New Mexico from California, so as to relieve the regular troops now here.  It is marked M.  On the twenty-first of August I was instructed to arrange the affairs of the District of Arizona, so as to turn over that district to the officer next in rank to myself, and hold myself in readiness to repair to the Headquarters Department of New Mexico.  I also received Special Orders No. 148, for the headquarters of that  department, directing me to send an officer as bearer of dispatches to the commander of the Department of the Pacific.  Copies of these documents are herewith inclosed, marked N.

                On the second of September I received Special Orders No. 123, marked O, directing me to relieve Brigadier-General Canby in the command of the Department of New Mexico.  Previous to this order I had published General Orders No. 17, which posted a company of infantry at Franklin, Tex., and another at Hart’s Mills, Tex.  It is herewith inclosed, marked P.  On the first day of September I put the Texan prisoners of war whom I found at Franklin on their parole, and sent them on their way to San Antonio, Tex., escorted by Company D, First Cavalry, California Volunteers.  (See my letter to the commanding officer of the Confederate forces, San Antonio, Tex., marked Q.)  I then returned to Las Cruces, N. Mex., where I published General Orders No. 20, marked R, regulating the affairs of the District of Arizona, and transferring the command of that district to Colonel Joseph R. West, First Infantry, California Volunteers.  I still retain the command of the Column from California, and shall cause all the reports which you require in your letter to me dated at San Francisco, May 30, 1862, to be sent to the Headquarters Department of the Pacific until I am otherwise ordered by competent authority.  I then proceeded to Santa Fe, arriving here on the sixteenth.  General Canby relinquished the command of the Department of New Mexico on the eighteenth instant.  (See General Orders No. 83, marked S.)  I assumed command of the department on the same day.  (See General Orders No. 84, marked T.)  Some additional changes have been made of the troops pertaining to the Column from California, which are indicated in a letter to Colonel West, dated September eighth, marked U, and another dated September ninth, marked V; also in two others dated September fourteenth, marked W and X, respectively.  I also inclose for your information three communications, marked Y.    I also inclose a copy of an order directing Lieutenant-Colonel Edward E. Eyre, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, to bear these dispatches to the Headquarters Department of the Pacific; it is marked Z.

                The various communications will give General Wright a pretty good idea of the operations of the troops comprising the Column from California from July twenty-second of this year to the present time.  I find that the supply of provisions in this department is adequate to the wants of all the troops from California now serving here, and, therefore, respectfully recommend that no more subsistence stores be purchases for the Column from California until further advices on this subject.  I propose to transport from Fort Yuma to Tucson, during the cool weather of the fall and winter, a large quantity of the subsistence stores now in excess at the former post, so as to provide for the contingency of the other troops being ordered to New Mexico from California, to provide for the wants of the troops already stationed in Arizona, and to form a magazine in case of any reverses here which may lead to the destruction of our present stores or oblige the California or other troops to retire towards the Pacific.  When these supplies have been accumulated at  Tucson by a train now employed for that purpose, that train will be required for service in this department; meantime, it can be used as transportation from Fort Yuma to the Rio Grande for any troops which General Wright may order from the Department of the Pacific into Arizona or New Mexico.  The southern overland mail route has been opened, and the military posts in Arizona and southern New Mexico and northwestern Texas have been reoccupied by troops composing the Column from California.  Thus far the instructions of the General commanding the Department of the Pacific have been carried out.  It was no fault of the troops from California that the Confederate forces fled before them.  It is but just to say that their having thus fled is mainly to be attributed to the gallantry of the troops under General Canby’s command.  That they were hurried in their flight by the timely arrival of the advance guard of the Column from California, under Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, there cannot be a doubt.

                The march across the desert from the Pacific to the Rio Grande by the Column from California was not accomplished without immense toil and great hardships, nor without many privations and much suffering from heat and want of water.  The amount of labor performed by Colonel Joseph R. West, the second in command, was immense, and of the greatest practical importance.  Much of our success was dependent on his energy, perseverance, cheerfulness, and high soldierly qualities.  I cannot too strongly recommend that this officer be promoted to the grade of Brigadier-General of Volunteers, as a reward for these services, and particularly as he now commands the most important district in this department.  I trust that General Wright will urge the necessity of this advancement of Colonel West, and set forth to the General-in-Chief his eminent fitness for the office of Brigadier-General.  This will promote Lieutenant-Colonel Rigg, which will be a reward for his important services as commanding officer at Fort Yuma during the past winter, and for his efficient labors in the Column while crossing the Great Desert.  I regard Colonel Rigg as one of the finest soldiers in the Column from California.  Those who know the troops from California as I know them, will consider this a high compliment.  Lieutenant-Colonel Edward E. Eyre, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, deserves a regiment.  The zeal he has manifested in the discharge of his duties, and the alacrity and cheerfulness he has always shown when called upon for any hazardous enterprise, distinguish him as one eminently fitted for the profession of arms.  If five companies more of a cavalry are to be sent from California, as requested by General Canby, I trust they will be added to the five which now compose the First Cavalry, California Volunteers, and that Lieutenant –Colonel Eyre will be commissioned as full Colonel.  The services under Major Coult, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers; of Major Fergusson, First Cavalry, California Volunteers and of Major McMullen, First Infantry, California Volunteers, have been most arduous, and are deserving a reward.

                The officers and men of the Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, and of the Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, shared and shared alike in all the privations and toil encountered by the First Infantry and First Cavalry, California Volunteers.  As soldiers in the highest acceptation of that word they were all equally subordinate, patient, energetic, and patriotic.  If I should select the names of some of them to be rewarded for these high qualities, it would be an invidious distinction.  Capt. John B. Shinn and First Lieut. Franklin Harwood, of the Third Artillery, for their incessant toil by night and by day to bring the battery of light artillery which is attached to the Column from California through the Yuma and Gila Deserts, should each receive the compliments of a brevet; Captain Shinn to be brevetted as Major, and First Lieutenant Harwood as Captain.  Unless these young men are rewarded by a compliment of this kind, I shall always feel that the passage of a battery of light artillery, always in fighting condition, over such an  inhospitable waste in the midst of the heats of summer, is a matter of such trivial importance in the profession of arms as not to be worthy of notice.  Theirs was the first battery that ever crossed the desert.  I am sure that he who crosses the next one will be considered an accomplished soldier.  I trust that General Wright will call the attention of the General-in-Chief to the credit which is eminently due these young gentlemen for their services in this Column.  I have already asked for promotion for my Adjutant-General, Lieut. Benjamin C. Cutler, for my Medical Director, Surgeon James M. McNulty and for my Regimental Quartermaster, First Lieut. La Fayette Hammond, all of the First Infantry, California Volunteers.  Their merits are too well known at the Headquarters Department of the Pacific, to need any further words of commendation for myself.

                In conclusion, I beg to thank General Wright for the confidence he always reposed in me.  In carrying out his orders and instructions I have endeavored to do my best, yet, as it was a new and very extended field of operations, my judgment about what was best to be done under emergencies as they arose, was doubtless not always of the soundest character, yet I feel that General Wright has kindly overlooked all imperfections of this nature and saved me the pain of many rebukes which no doubt I have deserved.  For this I feel very grateful.  The march of the Column from California across the Great Desert in the summer months, in the driest season that has been known for thirty years, is a military achievement creditable to the soldiers of the American Army.  But it would not be just to attribute the success of this march to any ability on my part.  That success was gained only by the high physical and moral energies of that peculiar class of officers and men who compose the Column from California.  With any other troops, I am sure I should have failed.  I send you a set of colors which have been borne by this Column.  They were hoisted by Colonel West on Forts Breckenridge and Buchanan, and over Tucson, Ariz.; by Colonel Eyre over Forts Thorn, Fillmore, and over Mesilla, N.Mex., and over Fort Bliss, in Texas.  They were hoisted by Captain Cremony over Fort Quitman, and by Captain Shirland over Fort Davis, in Texas, and thus again have those places been consecrated to our beloved country.

                All of which is respectfully submitted.


Brigadier-General, U.S. Army, Commanding.



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., October 22, 1862.



Assistant Adjutant-General.